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Cultures, Identities and Nationhood in Morocco

Master : Cultural studies :
Cultures, Identities and Nationhood in Morocco

Coordinator : Pr. Khalid BEKAOUI

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  • Descriptif

Academic year 2023-2024 
Semester 1 8:30 – 10:30 10:45 – 12:45 14:00 – 16:00 16:15 – 18:15
Semester 2 8:30 – 10:30 10:45 – 12:45 14:00 – 16:00 16:15 – 18:15
Semester 3 8:30 – 10:30 10:45 – 12:45 14:00 – 16:00 16:15 – 18:15








Language, Ethnicity and Cultural Identity in Morocco examines the construction of identity and ethnicity in Morocco and how they shape and are shaped by Moroccan culture and as well as how these notions inform national identity. The course also reflects on and debates the constitution’s definition of Morocco as a “A Nation whose unity is based on the fully endorsed diversity of its constituents: Arabic, Amazigh, Hassani, Sub-Saharan, African, Andalusian, Jewish and Mediterranean components. »






“Theories of Culture”  consists of a set of readings in anthropological work on Morocco. Focus is placed on Anglo-American anthropological fieldwork on Moroccan culture and society, namely by of Clifford Geertz, Paul Rabinow, Westermark and Ernest Gellner, Crapanzano, Dale Eickelman. The course also discusses anthropological works by Moroccan researches such as Abdellah Hammoudi, Abdkebir Khatibi Hassan Rachik, and their critique of Western anthropology.



  • Crapanzano, V. 1980. Tuhami: Portrait of a Moroccan. University of Chicago Press.
  • Dwyer, K. 1982. Moroccan Dialogues: Anthropology in Question. The Johns Hopkins Univ Press.
  • Eickelman, D. F. 1976. Moroccan Islam. University of Texas Press.
  • Geertz, C. 1968. Islam Observed: Religious Development in Morocco and Indonesia. Yale Univ Press.
  • Gellner, E. 1969. Saints of the Atlas. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
  • Hammoudi, A. The Cultural Foundations Of Moroccan Authoritarianism . Univ. of Chicago Press
  • Munson 1984. The House of Si Abd Allah: The Oral History of a Moroccan Family. Yale Univ Press.
  • Rabinow, P. 1977. Reflections on Fieldwork in Morocco. University of California Press.

Rachik H, 2003. Symboliser la nation : essai sur l’usage des identités collectives au Maroc. Le Fennec.




“Women’s movements in Morocco” introduces students to the feminist movement in Morocco through a selection of authors like Fatima Mernissi, Hind Taareji, Leila Lalami, and others. The objective is to approach the subject outside mainstream Eurocentric feminism. The course also deals with gender as a significant factor in propelling social movements, women’s redefinition of the Mudawana, mobilizing women across socio-economic boundaries, women’s resistance to gender-based oppression, and their participation and impact on the Moroccan Spring and political and cultural reforms in Morocco.






“Women and writing” course examines both women’s production and consumption of writing as well as specific representations of the figure of the woman writer herself. The selected texts include main Arab women writers such as Hanan al-Shaykh, Nawal El Saadawi, Fatima Menissi, Ghada Samman, Laila Lalami, and Leila Abuzeid allow for a wide range of issues to be explored, including formal innovation, identity formation and the interaction of gender, race and class within the practices of Arab women writings. The focus will be on giving the student insight into, and understanding of, key cultural and theoretical issues regarding works by women writers.



  • Amireh, A. (1996). “Publishing in the west: Problems and prospects for Arab women writers.” Al-Jadid2(10).
  • Anastasia Valassopoulos Contemporary Arab women writers : cultural expression in context Routledge 2007.
  • Dalya Cohen-Mor Arab women writers : an anthology of short stories. State U New York Press, 2005.
  • Fadia Faqir; Shirley Eber In the house of silence: autobiographical essays by Arab women writers Garnet, 1998
  • Hartman, Michelle (2012). “Gender, Genre and the (Missing) Gazelle: Arab women writers and the politics of translation.” Feminist Studies, 38(1).
  • Hout, Syrine (2003). “Going the extra mile: Redefining identity, home, and family in Hanan Al-Shaykh’s Only in London.”Studies in the Humanities, 30(1-2).
  • Larson, Charles (1991). “The fiction of Hanan Al-Shaykh, reluctant feminist.” World Literature Today, 65(1).
  • Spivak, Gayatri (2006). “Can the subaltern speak?” In Bill Ashcroft, et al, The post-colonial studies reader. Routledge.
  • Radwa Ashour(Author) , Ferial Ghazoul (Author)Arab Women Writers: A Critical Reference Guide, 1873-1999 The American Univ in Cairo Press 2008.




“Initiation to Research” intends to achieve two objectives:

  1. Teach students research skills, including data collection (interviewing and questionnaires) and analysis and interpretation of the information. Focus is placed on developing the skills and knowledge needed to design and conduct research and develop their projects into written theses.
  2.  Help students to express their ideas and opinions clearly and effectively, respond to complex lines of argument convincingly and articulate their comments clearly and persuasively.


Students are required to write short essays to put research competencies and techniques into practice. They are also given the opportunity to enhance both their research abilities and oral performance in a variety of activities such as presentations, group discussion, and study-days.




“Gender and Religion” focuses on the following major issues:

  1. Moroccan State’s deployment of gender to restructure the religious field
  2. Feminist scholars’ interpretation of the sacred text and spiritual spaces
  3. Configuration of ‘feminine’ and sexuality in religious discourse
  4. Feminist Salafism in Sufism
  5. Ideologies of gender and sexuality in  Islam

The course aims to help students:

  1. Acquire the necessary theoretical and methodological skills and knowledge to explore gender and religion
  2. Develop the theoretical and methodological tools to undertake research in the field of gender and religion
  3. Familiarize with the debate on gender and religion in Morocco and the Islamic world
  4. Develop their oral communication and writing skills
  5. Enhance in-depth knowledge about feminist approaches in the study of Islam



  • Ahmed Leila. Women and Gender in Islam. Yale Univ Press, 1992
  • Aslan, Ednan and Hermansen Marcia (eds). Muslima Theology: The Voices of Muslim Women Theologians. Frankfurt: Peter Lang Edition, 2013.
  • Benson, Kristina. “The Moroccan Personal Status Law and the Invention of Identity: A Case Study on the Relationship between Islam, Women, and the State” (2013)
  • El Haitami, Meriem. “Restructuring Female Religious Authority: State-Sponsored Women Religious Guides.” Mediterranean Studies, 20:2 (20121101): 227-240.
  • Dieste, Josep Lluís Mateo. “Demonstrating Islam”: the Conflict of Text and the Mudawwana Reform in Morocco The Muslim World 99 : 1 (2009)
  • Mernissi,Fatima. Beyond the Veil. Indiana Univ. Press, 1987.
  • Ougir, A. Female Religious  Agents in Morocco:. PhD dissert. University of Amsterdam, 2013.
  • Salime, Zakia. Between feminism and Islam . Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2011.
  • Terem, Etty. Old texts, new practices : Islamic reform in modern Morocco. Stanford, California : Stanford University Press, 2014.
  • Valentine M. Moghadam, Globalization and Social Movements: Islamism, Feminism, and the global justice movement . Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2009)
  • Wadud, Amina. Inside the Gender Jihad. Oneworld Publications, 2006; reprt. 2008.


Semester 2



“Representing Cultural Difference” is designed to introduce theories of representing cultural difference from Edward Said’s Orientalism to Homi Bhabha’s Ambivalence and to apply these approaches to the reading of a selection of Western narratives on the Maghreb, Latin America and Asia.

Approached from an interdisciplinary perspective, the course explores the theories of cross cultural representation through the study of a number of issues related to race, empire, geographical and cultural spaces, politics of identity and cultural difference, power, knowledge, and resistance.


  • Bhabha, Homi K. The Location of Culture.  Routlege, 1994.
  • Butler, Richard J. and Tom Hinch, eds. Tourism & Indigenous Peoples. Routledge 1996.
  • Clifford, J. & Marcus, G. Writing Culture. University of California Constable, 1986.
  • Gilroy, Paul. The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness. Cambridge:
  • Harvard UP, 1992.
  • Edward Said, Orientalism. 1978
  • Elizabeth Hallam; Brian V Street, Cultural encounters : representing otherness. Routledge, 2000.
  • Hulme, Peter. Colonial Encounters: Europe and the Native Caribbean. Methuen, 1986.
  • Landry, Janice L., and Anna H. Fesmire ‘The World Is Out There Waiting: An Introduction to Travel and Tourism’ Prentice Hall (Sd)1994
  • Lowe, Lisa. Critical Terrains: French and British Orientalism. Cornell P., 199




“Studies in Travel Writing” focuses on Anglo-American travel literature on Morocco and cultural representation. It emphasises the interdisciplinary value of travel writing, bringing together the methods of geography, history, anthropology, post-colonial, cultural and gender studies. Through a selection and close reading of a set of travel narratives on Morocco, students will be initiated to issues of race, space, identity, gender, power, knowledge and colonial encounters.



  • Ahmed Idrissi Alami, Mutual Othering: Islam, Modernity, and the Politics of Cross-Cultural Encounter in PreColonial Morocco and European Travel Writing. State Univ of New York Press, 2013.
  • Albers, P & James, W.(1988) ‘Travel photography: A Methodological Approach’ Annals of Tourism Research, 15, 134-58.
  • Behdad, Ali. Belated Travellers: Orientalism in the Age of Colonial Dissolution. Duke U. P. 1994.
  • Clifford, James. Routes: Travel and Translation in the Late Twentieth Century. Harvard U P, 1997.
  • Cooper, Chris / Boniface, Brian G. The Geography of Travel & Tourism. Butterworth: 1994.
  • Duncan, James and Derek Gregory. Writes of Passage: Reading Travel Writing. Routledge: 1999.
  • Kaplan, Caren. Questions of Travel: Postmodern Discourses of Displacement. Duke UP, 1996.
  • Hudman, Lloyd. Geography of Travel and Tourism. Delmar Publishing: 1998.
  • Morgan, Nigel, and Annette Pritchard. Tourism Promotion and Power: Creating Images, Creating Identities. John Wiley & Sons: 1998.
  • Oslen, Jess. “Through White Eyes: The Packaging of People and Places in the World of the Travel Brochure,” Cultural Studies from Birmingham, 2:1 (1998)
  • Pratt, Mary Louise. Imperial Eyes: Studies in Travel Writing and. Transculturation. Routledge. 1992.
  • Robertson, George et al eds. Travellers’ Tales: Narratives of Home and Displacement   Routledge 1994.
  • Sherman, Daniel J. Museum Culture: Histories, Discourses, Spectacles. Routledge, 1994.
  • Slyomovics Susan « Cross-Cultural Dress and Tourist Performance in Egypt. » Performing Arts Journal, 11: 3, The Interculturalism Issue (1989), pp. 139-148.
  • Urry, J. The Tourist Gaze. London: Sage, 1990.



“Women in Diaspora” covers the following issues:

  1. The issues of the veil will be addressed.
  2. Films and novels related to Moroccan gender and diaspora
  3. Digital gendered Diasporas
  4. Digital misalliance
  5. Homeland, nostalgia and gendered memory
  6. Identities in diasporas: gender, sexuality, and ethnicity
  7. Racism, stereotyping and xenophobia


Bibliography :

  • El Khayat, Rita. Les bonnes de Paris : essai sur l’émigration des femmes maghrébines. Paris : Riveneuve, 2008.
  • Ennaji Moha ;Fatima Sadiqi. Migration and gender in Morocco : the impact of migration on the women left behind. Trenton, NJ : Red Sea Press, 2008.
  • Ennaji Moha. Muslim Moroccan Migrants in Europe. New York, NY : Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.
  • Gilroy, The black Atlantic: modernity and double consciousness Harvard University Press, 1993.
  • Jana Evans Braziel and Anita Mannur, ed. Theorizing Diaspora: A Reader. Malden, MAand Oxford UK: Blackwell Publishing, 2003.
  • Jennifer M. Brinkerhoff. Digital Diasporas: Identity and Transnational Engagement. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009
  • Lacoste-Dujardin, Camille; Marie Virolle. Femmes et hommes au Maghreb et en immigration : la frontière des genres en question : études sociologiques et anthropologiques. Paris : Publisud, 1998.
  • Lodewijckx, H. ; C. Schoenmaeckers. “Changes in Family Formation among Turkish and Moroccan Women In Belgium.” Genus, 51: 3/4 (1995), pp. 205-227.
  • Marianne Hirsch and Nancy K. Miller, ed. Rites of Return: Diaspora Poetics and the Politics of Memory. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011.




“Post-colonial Literatures” will introduce students to Post-colonial literature and theory. A number of the most influential theorists of post-colonial studies  as well as a selection of contemporary post-colonial literary texts will be read. We will first explore what the term ‘post-colonial’ means in various historical and geographical contexts, and we will address critical issues such as nation and nationalism, multiculturalism, capitalism and globalisation, race, ethnicity, historiography etc… The readings will be drawn from a range of locations such as Morocco, Algerian, Palestine, India, Nigeria, and the Caribbean.

The course covers the following topics:

  1. Subaltern voices
  2. Writing Back against Literary Presentations of Africa
  3. Pan-African Education in Ghana via Ama Ata Aidoo
  4. The Diaspora via Peter Abrahams
  5. Postcolonial deconstruction colonial constructions of knowledge and power
  6. Anti-colonial struggles against subordination



  • Achebe, Chinua Things Fall Apart, Anchor Books, 1958
  • Achebe, Chinua “An image of Africa: Racism in Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness,”

Research in African Literatures, Vol. 9, No.1, (Spring, 1978), pp. 1-15.

  • Arundhati Roy, The God of Small Things, Harper Perennial, 1997.
  • Ashcroft, Bill, Gareth Griffiths, Helen Tiffin, The Empire Writes Back. Routledge, 2002.
  • Bhabha, Homi K. “Of Mimicry and Man,” The Location of Culture, Routledge 2004.
  • Peter and R. J. Patrick Williams. An Introduction to Post-Colonial Theory, Prentice Hall, 1996.
  • Djebar, Assia. Fantasia: An Algerian Cavalcade. Heinemann, 1993.
  • Fanon, Frantz. Black Skin, White Masks, Pluto Press, 1986.
  • Ghassan Kanafani, Men Under the Sun
  • Hall, Stuart. “Foucault: Power, Knowledge and Discourse,” in Representation: Cultural

Representations and Signifying Practices, London: Sage, 1997.

  • Jean Rhys, Wide Sargasso Sea, Penguin Books, 1966.
  • Laila Abuzeid. Year of Elephant. Univ. of Texas at Austin, 1989.
  • Salih, Tayeb. Season of Migration to the North. New York: Review Books, 2009.



 “Research Methodology” offers an overview of the different approaches and challenges involved in academic research. It initiates students in field work using interviews, surveys and experiments, explores methods used in critical analysis of texts (discourses) and focuses on approaches as mythological tools for discourse analysis



  • Cottrell, S. 2003. Critical Thinking Skills: Developing Effective Analysis and Argument. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan
  • Kothari, C.R. 2004. Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. New Delhi : NEW AGE INTERNATIONAL (P) LIMITED, PUBLISHERS
  • Walliman, N. 2011. Research Methods: The Basics. London & New York : Routledge


Module 6: Morocco Encounters with the Anglo-American World


 “Morocco Encounters with the Anglo-American World” is taught in Arabic. It provides a survey of the historical, commercial, diplomatic, political and cultural encounters between Morocco and the Anglo-American world. It studies through interdisciplinary perspectives British and American perceptions and constructions of Morocco in a wide range of discourses in anthropology, literature, historical and diplomatic documents, and popular culture.


The course offers ample opportunities to introduce current theories in Postcolonial Studies and explore them in the study of a number of issues related to race, geographical and cultural spaces, politics of identity and cultural difference, power, knowledge, and resistance.

Moroccan construction of Otherness is also considered against theories of Occidentalism.




  • خالد بن الصغير، المغرب وبريطانيا العظمى في القرن التاسع عشر، 1856-1886. الشركة المغربية للنشر،.1990
  • إدريس الجعيدي، اتحاف الاخيار بغرائب الاخبار: رحلة الى فرنسا، بلجيكا، المؤسسة العربية للدراسات والنشر والتوزيع, 2004
  • محمد بنهاشم، العلاقات المغربية الأمريكية: دراسة في التمثيل الدبلوماسي الأمريكي بالمغرب، 1786-1912. دار أبي رقراق للطباعة والنشر،2009
  • عبد الهادي التازي، التاريخ الدبلوماسي للمغرب من أقدم العصور إلى اليوم . الرباط : وزارة الأوقاف والشؤون الإسلامية، 1994.
  • روجرز، تاريخ العلاقات الإنجليزية-المغربية حتى عام 1900 . دار الثقافة، 1981.



Module 1 : The Arab Spring, Media  and political change

The Arab Spring, Media and Political Change” analyzes the production and circulation of the discourse on political change. The course explores the role media, especially facebook and mobile telephony, has played in the Arab uprising. It also pays close attention to how political change in the Arab world is a highly mediated experience the world over, which calls for the development of adequate critical approaches that can best deal with the subject at hand.


  1. 5 (October 2011): 675-679




“Moroccan Youth Culture & Urban Space”: The university is a youth space par excellence, and yet we rarely design up courses that are for and about young Moroccans. So this course remedies this lacuna by examining the contribution of youth cultural movements to a changing sociality in Morocco. It examines the nature and forms of youth culture in Morocco’s urban spaces, especially in the big cities like Casablanca, Fez and Marrakech. It aims at exposing to the students some basics of methodology in social research in the context of studying the forms of youth culture such as clothing, music and other youth lifestyles as the interface of global flows and local culture.

The course is organised in terms of (a) close readings of representations about youth in book and video and (b) follow-up discussions and practical work presented by each student. For the students have to give individual presentations in class about field work they are required to do about how Moroccan youths’ self-representation, look at society and dream of their future lives.

Course outline includes:

  1. Key concepts, terminologies, theoretical perspectives and methods used to study youth
  2. Relationships between economic processes, media representations, urban space and the production of youth cultures
  3. Youth and religious identifications
  4. Unemployed Youth diploma holders and urban protest
  5. Who controls the public space: Youth or State?
  6. How Moroccan youths reinforce, challenge, debate, and reinvent social, cultural, and national values
  7. Youth’s negotiation of social justice, human rights, and democracy
  8. University and students’ political activism
  9. Understanding analyzing Media representation of Moroccan youth
  10. Veiling or unveiling: religious identification in the urban space
  11. Youths and educational reform
  12. Gender and sexuality in the public and in cyber space






Film Theory and Criticism” is designed to offer an introduction to the study of film through a survey of the major theories of reading movies. Critical focus shifts from conventional debates about cinema in terms of whether it is an art or a means of social commentary to contemporary readings which broach cinema as a cultural form. Students will be given opportunities to learn about film through class participation, reading texts and articles, writing a paper, and critiquing films.

Recommended movies include: Frozen River, English Patient, London River, Anna and the King, Zulu etc


Course outline includes:

  1. Film Genres, Language and narratives
  2. Cinematography & film production.
  3. Film analysis: themes, worldviews, and propaganda
  4. Film criticism & interpretation.
  5. Film theory
  6. Film and Mass Culture


Bibliography :

  • Braudy and M. Cohen, eds. Film Theory and Criticism: Introductory Readings. Oxford Univ Press, 1999
  • Dudley Andrew, The Major Film Theories: An Introduction;
  • Stam, S. Flitterman-Lewis, et al, New Vocabularies in Film Semiotics




“Gender and Media Analysis” examines representations of race, class, gender, and sexual identity in the media (film, television, print journalism, advertising). It looks at the coverage of the private and public lives as well as the configuration of the female body in American, British and Moroccan media. Issues such as masculinity/femininity, beauty, virginity, marriage and motherhood are debated. Media representations are approached as a site for the reinvention and redefinition of gender roles, the body, sexuality, and subjectivity.

Course topics include:

  1. News: Texts, Institutions,
  2. Authorship and spectatorship
  3. Images, Representation, Language and Ideiology
  4. Media, Culture and Society
  5. Representation of Femininity in visual discourse
  6. Global Media: Global Culture and Cultural Identities
  7. Gendred Visual Orientalism
  8. Narrating the nation in the Moroccan television
  9. Sexuality in soap operas



  • Alvarado Manuel, ed. The Media Reader. London: BFI 1990.
  • Berger Ways of Seeing. Penguin: 1990.
  • Carter,Cynthia et al eds. News, Gender and Power. Routledge 1998.
  • Ellis, John. Visible Fictions: Cinema: Television: Video. Routledge, 1992
  • Evans, Jessica and Stuart Hall, eds. Visual Culture: The Reader. SAGE Publications, 1999.
  • Ghareeb, Edmund, ed. Split Vision: The American Portrayal of Arabs in the American Media. The American-Arab Affairs Council, 1983.
  • Gunther, Kress et al. Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design., Routledge, 1996
  • Langer, Tabloid Television: Popular Journalism and the ‘Other News’. Routledge, 1998
  • Marris, Paul. Media Studies: A Reader. New York University Press 2000.
  • Morley, Dave David Morley; Television, Audiences and Cultural Studies. Routledge, 1993
  • Philo, Greg. Seeing and Believing: The Influence of Television. Routledge, 1990
  • Richard Dyer. The Matter of Images: Essays on Representations. Routledge, 1993
  • Sorlin Peter. Mass-Media. Routledge, 1994
  • Sturken, Marita & Cartwright. Practices of Looking: An Introduction to Visual Culture. OUP, 2001.
  • Wells Liz. Photography: A Critical Introduction. Routledge, 1997.




Through a detailed analysis of a selection of Moroccan films and Western films on Morocco, the course reflects on the aesthetic and politics of representing Selfhood and Otherness on the silver screen

Students will have the opportunity to screen and study a wide range of films and television material, including fiction and documentary (Badis, Door to The Sky, Ali Zawa, Zidou al Gouddam, The Wind and the Lion, Ishtar, Sahara, Casablanca etc). For their research projects, each student is expected to produce a short film (in documentary form). The Moroccan Cultural Studies Centre to which most of the Mater Programme staff are affiliated has the appropriate equipments for such a project.



·         Valérie Orlando, Francophone voices of the « new » Morocco in film and print : (re)presenting a society in transition Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

, 2010






MA Thesis

Writing a final thesis

– Initiation into doctoral research

The requirements for this module consist of writing a final thesis (80-100 pages) that is based on the work done in module 6 (semester 3) with the help of a supervisor from the master program. This work should reflect the techniques and skills of research that the student has been able to acquire from previous modules on research methodology, as well as it may equip him/her with competence needed for further doctoral studies.

The thesis should be submitted in early May for committee examination, and the same committee can schedule a defence in late May.



This seminar tackles human development and gender related issues. Research and themes to be undertaken are embedded within the theories analyses elaborated to sort out problems having to do with development (Human, social, cultural, economic, political, etc.) in relation to Gender studies in Morocco and other Arab countries. This module, taught in the form of a number of seminars, provides  students with the methodological and theoretical skills to  be able to do the following:

  1. Conduct scientific research along with International Scientific Academic norms in Gender and Development domain.
  2. Thinking of a topic
  3. Data collection and analysis
  4. Theories and methodology in Gender and development research
  5. Ethical Practices in Gender and Development Research

The seminar also encourages fieldwork research on the representations of women at the economic, legal, political and cultural levels.



  • Ennaji, M.2004.”Women and development”. In Sadiqi, Fatima. (Ed.), Femme Méditeraneennes. (pp. 39-46). Traveaux du Colloque International 24, 25, et 26. Mohammadia: Imprimierie Fédala
  • Ennaji Moha , 2008. “Steps to the Integration of Moroccan Women in Development,”British

Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 35: 3, pp. 339-34

  • Moghadam, V. 1993. Modernizing Women: Gender and Social Change in theMiddle East. Boulder, CO : L. Rienner
  • Moghadam, V. 2005. “Women’s Livelihood and Entitlements in the Middle East:

that Difference has the Neoliberal Policy Turn Made?” JMEWS 1 (1), 110-146

  • .Sadiqi, Fatima.2005. Femmes et Développement. Association Fes- Sais, Fes.Sater,James. N. 2006. Civil Society and Political Change in Morocco. Routledge.
  • Tina, Wallace; Candida, March (Eds) (1991) Changing Perceptions: Writings on

Gender an Development. Oxfam Publications

  • Touhtou, R. 2008. Debating Civil Society in Morocco. Dynamics of Gender, Development and Social Capital. Lambert Academic Publishing.